Public health is the health of the society as a whole, which is everyone's health. Health is the state of complete physical, mental and social well being and merely the absence of disease or infirmity. In the 19th century Britain became the world's first industrial society. It also became the first urban society. The population of Britain increased incredibly in the 19th century. Medicine and surgery made very big advances in the 19th century. Louis Pasteur proved that diseases were caused by microscopic organisms. He also invented a way of sterilising liquids by heating them. He also invented a vaccination for anthrax and rabies. Surgery was greatly improved as anaesthetics were discovered and surgeons could carry out more complicated surgeries.
Urbanisation is the increase in the proportion of people living in town's and cities. Urbanisation occurs when people move from rural areas to urban areas. Industrialisation or an industrial revolution is the process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from pre-industrial society to an industrial one.
In the 19th century conditions were very bad, the towns were dirty, unsanitary and over crowded. In the early 19th century poor families had to share toilets. There were horrid conditions where it was very common for diseases to form. Life expectancy were very low and infant mortality rate was very high. British towns suffered from outbreaks of cholera. In the late 19th century most towns dug sewers and created piped water which made lives much healthier.
There have been many achievements made on public health such as:
* smoking has been banned in public places as tobacco has been made a health hazard
* control of infectious diseases as vaccinations have been put in place
* healthier mother and babies which been there is a decrease in the infant mortality rate