What Is Prostate Cancer?

Published: 2021-06-29 07:02:41
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What is Prostate Cancer?
The purpose of this paper is to educate men of all ages about prostate cancer. This awareness is crucial if society is going to eradicate this terrible disease. Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer in men. It is, in essence, the male counterpart of breast cancer and can sometimes lead to difficult decisions and unexpected consequences. This is a very common disease of men over 55, and its course is often indolent. It is believed that cancer is caused by changes in DNA. The reason for this is, that some parts of DNA give instructions to the cells about growth and division (Barrett, D. M., 2002). This is a debilitating disease that attacks men, has many unpleasant stages and symptoms, and warrants careful diagnosis and treatment for increased survival rates. Men over a certain age should be more aware of the disease. Treatment and screenings, however, are controversial because often undue harm occurs that adversely affects the quality of life.
Men with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) may be at increased risk of prostate cancer. These prostate cells look abnormal under a microscope. Researchers have found specific regions on certain chromosomes that are linked to the risk of prostate cancer (Barrett, D. M., 2002). According to recent studies, if a man has a genetic change in one or more of these regions, the risk of prostate cancer may be increased. The risk increases with the number of genetic changes that are found. Other studies have shown an elevated risk of among men with changes in certain genes, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 (NCI, n.d.).
Having a risk factor does not mean that a man will develop the disease. Most men who have risk factors never develop the disease. "About 240,000 American men are diagnosed with prostate cancer every year" (NCI, n.d.), but because this disease grows slowly, many men do not develop any visible symptoms.
Prostate cancer is predominantly a disease of men between 50 and 72 years at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis. Estimated new cases and deaths from prostate cancer in the United States in 2011: 240,890, Deaths: 33,720 (Barrett, D. M. 2002).
A male sex gland, the prostate is a small gland located below the bladder. The function of the gland is to collect and empty urine, and it also creates fluids that make up semen. Affected by sex hormones, the prostate helps to control healthy sperm production.
The diagnosis of prostate cancer may occur with multiple modalities including imaging, notably Ultrasound, Biopsy, CAT scan, and a Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) and a blood test known as the Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) (Grimm et al, 2003).
When doctors are checking patients for prostate cancer, they refer to three main zones of the prostate peripheral, transition, and central (What is Prostate Cancer,n.d.). The peripheral zone is larger than the other two zones; it points to the area that presses against the rectum. The transition zone is the small, innermost part of the prostate that wraps around the urethra. Any problems occurring in this region can make passing urine difficult. The third area is known as the central zone because it lies between the peripheral and transition zones. Doctors use these zones to diagnose cases of prostate cancer accurately. It is through abnormalities in cell division that cancer comes into play, Cells can experience uncontrolled growth if there are damages or mutations to DNA, and therefore, damage to the genes involved in cell division.

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