Published: 2021-06-29 07:06:43
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"Any fool can carry on but a wise man knows how to shorten sail in time."
-Joseph Conrad-

Turbulence is a natural phenomenon in which every plane is built to fly. It cannot cause a plane to fall. Turbulence is air movement that normally cannot be seen. It may occur when the sky appears to be clear and can happen unexpectedly. It can be created by any number of different conditions, including atmospheric pressures, jet streams, mountain waves, cold or warm fronts, or thunderstorms.
For our purposes, we'll look at what you need to know about meteorology, and of course turbulence which is a part of that. So are thunderstorms which aircraft can be directed to avoid, or, if over an airport or nearby, will keep aircraft on the ground, or circling some distance away, which may serve to delay your flight. Movement of air depends on heating of the surfaces during the day, the ability of the land to hold the heat at night, local terrain which can cause the air to tunnel between mountain ranges for instance or cause "eddies" as they roll over the mountain tops.
Causes of Turbulence
To understand and predict turbulence in advance the pilot should know the occasions where he should expect turbulence. Following are the causes of turbulence.

1. Thermal turbulence. Heat from the sun makes warm air masses rise and cold ones sink. Some surfaces absorb and radiate energy at a much higher rate than others. This creates a light form of thermal turbulence. Common when two areas of land heat at different rates (such as a large parking lot next to a field). When an aircraft flies into this it may experience vertical shifts as it moves over the two areas boundaries. This is also called convective turbulence

2. Jet streams or Clear Air Turbulence. Jet streams are fast winds over slow winds in neutral or unstable environment will cause turbulent eddies within clear atmosphere (no cloud signs), often found in the vicinity of the jet stream core. There are several notable problems with clear air turbulence. It cannot always be foreseen so there is no warning. It is usually felt at its mildest in the flight deck and is generally more severe in the aft section. It can occur when no clouds are visible. It is common at high altitudes, where cruising airline suddenly enter turbulent areas. Turbulence is the leading cause of in-flight injuries. There are countless reports of occupants who were seriously injured while moving about the passenger cabin when clear air turbulence is encountered.

3. Mountain turbulence. Air passes over mountains and causes turbulence as it flows above the air on the other side. This type of turbulence is dangerous for aircraft flying in hilly terrain and landing at airfields at high terrain areas. It is mostly found on the lee side of the mountain and can range from 500 feet to few thousand feet above the mountain top.

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