Three Communication Theories

Published: 2021-06-29 06:58:14
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In this essay I will discuss in depth three communication theories and their relevance to the workplace. It begins with explanation of Aristotle Rhetoric theory, followed by Shannon and Weaver model theory and Berlo's S-M-C-R Model theory. I will use my own experience of the workplace that either support or refute these communication theories, meanwhile I will explain the process of communication when giving the example of Berlo's S-M-C-R Model. Finally include a section of how self concept, perception and culture influence the communication process.

There are three elements included in Aristotle Rhetoric, which are speech-making - speaker, subject, and the hearer. The hearer must make their own decision to those things past or future. Aristotle believes that its study is important for a number of reasons: it can assist in the defense of truth and justice; it can persuade a less intellectual audience that fails to comprehend intellectual demonstration; and it ensures that both sides are considered. Three factors contribute to rhetoric: the personal character of the speaker, the mood that he induces in the audience, and the arguments themselves (Ferguson, 1972). Aristotle defines the rhetorician as someone who is always able to see what is persuasive. Correspondingly, rhetoric is defined as the ability to see what is possibly persuasive in every given case (Rapp, 2010). For example, the manager of the human resources of department in our company give a speech about the company's policy to all the new employees every year. The manager, the speech making, try to persuade all the new employees, the hearer, to follow the policy, so all the hearer need to decide whether they need to obey the policy in future after hearing the speech.
The Shannon-Weaver Model proposes that all communication must include six elements: source, encoder, message, channel, decoder, receiver (Shannon, 1949). According to Shannon and Weaver's model, a message begins at an information source, which is relayed through a transmitter, and then sent via a signal towards the receiver. But before it reaches the receiver, the message must go through noise (sources of interference). Finally, the receiver must convey the message to its destination. The Shannon-Weaver model emphasizes the transmission and reception of information. It looks at communication as a one-way process. And one important addition to Aristotle is the concept of noise, which can refer to any technical or non-technical barrier or distraction (Gerbner, 1956). For example, I am the new employee in a pizza store and get a order for Toni Pepperoni Pizza from the customer, so I ask my manager about the topping of this Pizza. He replies, "Well, the topping of the pizza is 90 pieces of Tony Pepperoni" I understand his words, but I don't know what is Tony Pepperoni." I can't decode the message and my manager failed to predict my inability to decode it.
Berlo's S-M-C-R Model is comprised of the Communication Source-encoder, the Message, the Channel, and the Communication Receiver-decoder. This model has depth in that it acknowledges the multiple ingredients to each element of communication. According to Berlo, the source "encodes message intended to produce desired response from receiver". The source-encoder is influenced by four factors: the source's communication skills, attitudes, knowledge level, and position within the social-cultural system. The message is encoded by the source and reflects these influences. The message itself is "the actual physical product of the source- encoder", and relies on three factors: the message code, content, and treatment. The channel is "how the message will be transmitted", meaning the determination of which senses will be utilized so that the receiver has the greatest opportunity to accurately interpret the message. It is crucial to note that the communication- receiver is influenced by the same factors as the source-encoder. Without accounting for the four critical factors of communications skills, attitudes, knowledge level, and social-cultural system position of the receiver, the sender is less likely to be able to communicate a message in an effective manner. When the message is decoded as the source intended the receiver is able to provide an effective response, thus exchanging roles with the original source-encoder (Berlo, 1960). The S-M-C-R Model believes that the source and receiver needs to be in the same level which can get an effective communication. So source and receiver should be similar. For example, after three months work in the pizza store, I'm familiar with all the knowledge about pizza. One customer ask," Can I have half Hawaii and half Meatlover pizza on classic crust and how much for that?" I know exactly what he wants, so the sender and receiver are in the same level. Berlos' SMCR model breaks up the communication process into four components, Source, Message, Channel and Receiver. The customer sends the message to me by face-to-face conversation. But this model does not mention the interference to communication, and feedback to the sender, so we don't know about the effect. If the communication can only be like that, how can we do business? And the normal communication process also need consider the context, which is the situation you delivery the message. This may include the surrounding environment or broader culture (i.e. corporate culture, international cultures, etc.).

Self-concept is composed of two components: self-image, or the sort of person you perceive yourself to be, and self-esteem, your feelings and attitudes about yourself, including how you like and value yourself (Teri, 2002). One's self-concept shapes perceptions of self and others and influences communication with others, which can be demonstrated during the process of communication. In the process of communication, self-knowledge and the way one feel about oneself is revealed to others, and affects how others react to them. For example, if one has poor self-concept and sees oneself as unworthy then they will present themselves this way, which will result in a negative

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