The Middle Ages

Published: 2021-06-29 07:04:11
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1.The Frankish Rulers
I. An Age of Transition
a. Middle ages started.
b. The Franks did much to shape the new culture of post-Roman Europe.
II. Clovis and the Merovingians
a. Clovis became king of one of the Frankish tribes.
b. Clovis controlled of all the Frankish tribes. He controlled all of northern Gaul.
c. The Merovingian kings who ruled after Clovis were generally weak.
d. Clovis's successor was Pépin II, who ruled from 687 to 714.
III. Charles Martel and Pepin The Short
a. Charles Martel, known as Charles the Hammer, became mayor of the palace.
b. Charles Martel's cavalry defeated the Spanish when they invaded France.
c. Charles Martel died in 741. His son, Pépin III, called "the Short," became the Merovingian kingdom's joint mayor of the palace with his brother, Carloman.
d. Pépin overthrew Childeric III, the last Merovingian ruler.
e. Charlemagne, Pépin's son and the greatest of all Frankish kings.
IV. Charlemagne's Empire
a. Charlemagne inherited the Frankish throne in 768 and ruled until 814.
b. He helped to spread church teachings and Christian beliefs.
c. He defeated the Lombards in Italy, the Saxons in northern Germany, and the Avars in central Europe, drove back the Moors back across the Pyrenees.
d. The pope's coronation of Charlemagne was also significant because it showed the close ties that existed between the Franks and the Christian church.
V. Government
a. He established his capital at the northern Frankish city of Aix-la-Chapelle.
b. Appointed officials helped Charlemagne run his empire. These officials were called missi dominici or "the lord's messengers."
c. They would travel through the empire to hear complaints, investigate official misconduct, and determine the effectiveness of laws.
VI. Education and Learning
a. Scholars were invited from all over western Europe to teach at the school.
b. Alcuin developed a curriculum based on the Roman model, emphasizing grammar, rhetoric, logic, mathematics, music, and astronomy.
c. Throughout his rule Charlemagne encouraged--sometimes forced--the empire's people to convert to Christianity.
2. The Decline of the Frankish Empire
I. The Empire After Charlemagne's Death
a. Charlemagne's only surviving son, Louis The Pious, proved to be a well- educated and religious king but a weak and shortsighted ruler.
b. When Louis died in 840, his sons Lothair, Charles the Bald, and Louis the German agreed to divide the empire among themselves.

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