The Juvenile Justice System

Published: 2021-06-29 07:09:18
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Wayne Reynolds
Fall 2011
Crime in Different Countries
Professor Stephanie Bush-Baskette, Esq., Ph.D

The Juvenile Justice System
The juvenile system as seen in the United States varies state to state and county to county. The juvenile system is completely different wherever you go, even in the same states. The juvenile justice system started with the medieval period in England, and it began to shape the juvenile justice system in the United States. In the United States the juveniles and adults were usually treated in the same manner, they were subjected to harsh punishment, mutilation, whipping, torture, and eventually death. The juveniles here were not viewed as a distinguished group of adults, everyone were viewed as equals from age seven and older and were treated as adult s and subjected to the same harsh and cruel punishments. The colonial period, which ran from 1636-1823 was the period in which we started seeing the idea of treating juvenile differently. During this period the history of the United States juvenile justice system began. We now saw the establishment of an informal form of social control.
The development continued with the House of Refuge period which ran from 1824 through 1898 and was also known as the immigration, Industrialization, and urbanization period. With these factors coming together, more people began looking for work in the cities. This resulted in children roaming the streets while the parents were working as there was no supervision for the kids. Philanthropists became concerned with the welfare of their children, some of the philanthropists were Jane Adams, Julia Winthrop, and Louis Brown, and they saw the problem for juveniles as coming from the families' inability to provide social control for the juveniles. The philanthropist now wanted to build a substitute for the family, they wanted to provide an ideal substitute, which would provide an ordinary and discipline environment for the juveniles. The ideal substitute was the House of Refuge, was designed to house statues offenders and to protect juveniles from weak and criminal parents. The House of Refuge was supposed to stop the temptation of the streets and protect the juveniles from moral weaknesses.
During the Period of 1899-1966 we then saw the development of the juvenile court period which was actually generated by a single court case "Ex Parte Crouse", here the state was given power over the care, custody, and control of the children, and this was over the parents of those children who now came in contact with the juvenile justice system. This case launched the juvenile justice system in the United States. The first juvenile court was created in Cook County, Chicago in 1899 and was based on the premise of "Parens Patriae" it was of the belief that juveniles were not entirely responsible for their actions, the juvenile's actions was based on poverty , inadequate family, neighborhood, and school system.

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