The Evolution of Antibiotics

Published: 2021-06-29 07:05:23
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In the Evolution of Antibiotics, antibiotic discovery, modes of action, and mechanisms of resistance have been research topics in academia and, until recently, pharmaceutical industry. The definition of antibiotic is simply a description of a use, a laboratory effect, or an activity of a chemical compound. It doe not define a class of compound or natural function, only its application. Antibiotic history is full of misconceptions, misinterpretations, weird predictions, and other mistakes that, on occasion, led to the truth. The discovery of antibiotics is considered one of the most significant health-related events of modern times. Unfortunately, the need for these valuable drugs has had a significant environmental downside. Our planet is saturated with these toxic agents, which has contributed to the selection of resistant strains. Resistance to antibiotics had been studied extensively and involved investigations of genetics and biochemistry of different facets of bacterial function. Antibiotic action and resistance has contributed to our knowledge of cell structure and function. There are a few resistant types that illustrate the difficulties in maintaining effective antibiotic activity. These types include Intrinsic Resistance, The Resistome, and The Subsistome. Intrinsic Resistnace refersto the existence of genes in bacterial genomes that could generate a resistance phenotype, i.e. , proto- or quasi- resistance. These studies could provide good clues to what may happen in the future. The Resistome is the resistant mechanism has been identified and has been shown to be specific enzymatic modifications of the antibiotics. In most cases, this mechanism may possess gene encoding resistance to compounds it produces. The Subsistome is the degradation of genes in the environment. In the investigations of links between antibiotic use and the development of antibiotic resistance, studies have shown the presence of antibiotic genes and even resistance-encoding integrons in the gut flora of people who live in isolated areas and have been untouched by modern civilization and unexposed to antibiotic therapies.
In consideration, the most serious consequence of the use of antibiotics is the concomitant development of resistant strains. This has prompted continuous efforts to exert control over antibiotic usage. It is clear that antibiotic resistance is inevitable. Many different solutions have been proposed by knowledgeable experts and all major international health groups. Past history provides recurrent warnings. Following its introduction into the United States in the 1950s, penicillin was available over the counter for almost 10 years before prescriptions were required. We can assume that a "core" population of antibiotic resistant strains was established by the 1960s in most industrialized nations. Although today, the situation is more complex. Antibiotic use is relatively uncontrolled in developing nations. It has been common for

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