Chapter 9 - "Utilitarianism"
∙ Case example: Lockheed in Japan (1972)
-- Lockheed makes payments to All Nippon Airways (ANA) and Japanese
government officials to secure deal
-- Included in this is a pledge of $1.6MM to Prime Minister Tanaka made by Lockheed
manager Carl Kotchian
-- Lockheed goes ahead with this since its business is in danger and it feels that these
payments are simply a necessary factor in doing business in Japan
-- In the end, Lockheed pays a total of $12.5MM in bribes and commissions (a small
number compared to the size of the deal, but ethical concerns arise)
-- Is this bribery or "facilitating payments?"
-- Kotchian values consequences (protection of jobs and investment in company) over
potential violation of duty (responsibilities of government officials to uphold the law)
-- Moral dilemma: Consequences (teleological theory) vs. Duty (deontological theory)